Jy blaai in die argief vir 2012 Maart.

Hit Parade: Hierdie week 47 jaar gelede

24/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

Skynbaar het niemand die leidraad in die pos “Die Reds se rooi lippies” gesnap nie, dat die ‘motel’ ook uurlikse tariewe gehad het. Die motorwrakke was bykomstige akkommodasie.

Gedurende die afgelope week is pogings om te blog en blogs te lees deur swak opvangs gekortwiek. Van Maandag af vir sowat ‘n maand gaan ek by ‘n boorprogram betrokke wees en sal van eerste lig tot laaste lig bedags in die veld wees. Logistiese reelings het my aandag geverg. Boorgate is afgepen. Daar is pad gemaak, of meer presies, ‘n erg verspoelde veldpad is meer begaanbaar gemaak deur dongas op te vul met klippe en sand en groot klippe moes uit die pad gerol word (‘n geoloog se werk is nie noodwendig ‘glamorous’ nie). Daar was ook skakeling met verskeie instansies.

Die ooreenstemmende week se Springbok Hit Parade, met die voorafgaande week se posisies tussen hakies:

1. I could easily fall (in love with you) – Cliff Richard (1)

2. Yeah-yeah – Georgie Fame (nuut)

3. Mr. Lonely – Bobby Vinton (2)

4. The bell rings – John Gary (6)

5. You can’t blame me – Bats (8)

6. Cupidoll – Dicky Loader (nuut)

7. Heart – Gene Rockwell (4)

8. Downtown – Petula Clark (5)

Cliff se treffer was nou reeds 3 weke bo. ‘Yeah-yeah’ van Danny Fisher, die vorige week derde, is onverwags vervang deur Georgie Fame se weergawe van dieselfde liedjie. Sover ek onthou was ‘Cupidoll’ die eerste ‘hit’ van Dicky Loader, ‘n lokale sanger. Die week se liriek is van Roger Whitaker, ‘n sanger van iewers in Oos- Afrika, vermoedelik van koloniale oorsprong. Die woorde is onderhewig aan redigering.

You won’t believe in if anymore

Now, if you load your rifle right

And if you fix your bayonet so

And if you kill that man, my friend

The one we call the foe

And if you do it often lad

And if you do it right

You’ll be a hero overnight

You’ve saved your country from a plight

Remember God is always right

If you survive to see the sight

Of your retreating foe

No, you won’t believe in if anymore

Is’s an illusion, if’s an illusion

No, you won’t believe in if anymore

If is for children, if is for children

Building day-dreams

If I knew then what I know now

I thought I’d let you know somehow

If I could have the time again

I’ll take the sunshine, leave the rain

If only time will trickle slow

Like rain that falls upon the snow

If only Lord, if only

If only Lord, if only

No, you won’t believe in if anymore

…………….

Die Reds se rooi lippies

18/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

Al van die afgelope week se nuus wat my oog gevang het was die nuusflits op die Al Jazeera-TV kanaal gisteraand, dat Sydney in Australie so pas die koelste somer sedert 1960 beleef het. Me Gillian Gerard, premier, sal seker vir die opponente van haar koolstofbelasting vertel, “koolstof bespaar en siedaar!”

Gistermiddag het ek tydens die Reds-Sharks wedstryd die eerste keer die Reds se nuwe trui aanskou. Op ‘n afstand lyk dit soos rooi blommetjies op ‘n wit agtergrond, maar in ‘closeup’ lyk die blommetjies meer soos oop, rooi lippe. Die lippe het my herinner aan ‘n ondervinding tydens ‘n besoek aan Suid-Amerika in 1999. My broer, Kobus het ons op ‘n toer deur Chili en Argentinie geneem. Daarna is ons van sy huis in Santiago na Vina del Mar, ‘n hawestad, die Chileense ekwivalent van die Franse Riviera. Ons wou daar oorbly, maar op navraag blyk dit dat akkommodasie so duur is dat net A.N.C.-ministers dit kon bekostig (omdat hulle nie self betaal nie). Ons is die aand maar weer terug na Santiago, ‘n uur of twee se ry. Die verkeersowerhede volg ‘n beleid van ‘zero tolerance’. Hulle sluit jou blykbaar

sommer op vir ‘n verkeersoortreding, dus ry Kobus nougeset onder die spoedgrens. Op ‘n stadium spot ek, “Het jy die ou in die rystoel gesien wat in die geel baan by ons verby is?”

Die volgende dag ry ons van Santiago noordwaarts en kom terug op die kusroete. Skaars ‘n halfuur se ry vanaf Vina del Mar was daar ‘n inligtingsbordjie langs die pad wat bekostigbare akkommodasie aandui. Ons draai af en hou stil voor ‘n soort motel. By ontvangs was daar sulke rooi lippe teen die mure. Kobus doen navraag in Spaans en ‘n rukkie later trek ons by ‘n twee-slaapkamer eenheid in. By al die deure sien ons weer die lippe-motief. Die motel is van die see geskei deur sandduine. Op pad see toe merk ons motorwrakke hot-en-haar versprei tussen die duine. Hulle was sonder wiele, maar andersins was die bakwerk nog in skaflike kondisie. Al die vensters was egter swart geverf. Kobus lig ons toe in dat die persoon by ontvangs hom tariewe per nag en per uur gekwoteer het. Ons het die nag egter goed geslaap. As daar deur die nag ander mense aangekom en vertrek het, het hulle dit suutjies gedoen. Die volgende dag was ons vroeg-oggend by Vina del Mar en kon die plek te voet verken.

Ek kry nog nie die fotos waar hulle moet inpas nie, maar van bo na onder:

1. Santiago aan die voet van die Andes-bergreeks. Die Andes is so hoog dat vliegtuie ‘n draai oor die Stille Oseaan moet vlieg om genoeg hoogte te kry om daaroor te vlieg.

2. ‘n Kenmerk van die suidelike deel van Chili is die mere en vulkane. Die dorp is Puerto Varas, net noord van die seehawe, Puerto Montt.

3. ‘n Groep studente van Universiteit Temucu aan’t ryloop. Daai senoritas (en senoras) mmm mmm!

Hit Parade: Hierdie week 47 jaar gelede

16/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

1. I could easily fall (in love with you) – Cliff Richard (1)

2. Mr. Lonely – Bobby Vinton (4)

3. Yeah-yeah – Danny Fisher (5)

4. Heart – Gene Rockwell (6)

5. Downtown – Petula Clark (2)

6. The bell rings – John Gary (7)

7. All day and all of the night – Kinks (3)

8. You can’t blame me – Bats (nuut)

The Bats, ‘n S.A. groep maak hul tweede verskyning op die hit parade. ‘n Paar maande tevore het hulle met ‘All I got’ die No.1 posisie gehaal. Hierdie week se liriek dink ek is ‘n ou bekende en is deur talle sangers opgedis, o.a. Ge Korsten. Die eerste weergawe wat ek gehoor was van die ‘Bachelors’ ‘n Ierse mannegroep.

I believe for every drop of rain that falls

A flower grows

I believe that somewhere in the darkest night

A candle glows

I believe for everyone who goes astray

Someone will come to show the way

I believe, I believe

I believe above the storm the smallest prayer

Will still be heard

I believe that someone in the great somewhere

Hears every word

Every time I hear a newborn baby cry

Or touch a leaf, or see the sky

Then I know whyI believe

Every time I hear a newborn baby cry

Or touch a leave, or see the sky

Then I know why I believe

The Epic of Australia’s Founding: The convicts on the First Fleet

16/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

 

“It was once a cherished Australian belief that at least some of the people on the First Fleet  were political exiles. In fact, though victims of a savage penal code, they were not political prisoners. On the other hand, few of them were dangerous criminals. Not one person was shipped out in 1787 for murder or rape, although more than a hundred of them had been convicted of thefts (such as highway robbery) in which violence played some part. No woman on the First Fleet, legend to the contrary, had been transported for prostitution, as it was not a transportable offence.

In all, 736 convicts went on the First Fleet. Of these, we know the age or occupation, and sometimes both, of 330 people – 127 women, 203 men. They came from all over England, but most of them were Londoners. Their main categories of crime were as follows:

Offence                                                                Number

Minor theft                                                            431

“Privy theft”, including breaking and entering        93

Highway robbery                                                    71

Stealing cattle or sheep                                         44

Robbery with violence (mugging)                           31

Grand larceny                                                          9

Fencing (receiving stolen goods)                             8

Swindling,impersonation                                         7

Forgery of documents,banknotes, etc.                    4

Other                                                                     35

Total of known indictments                                  733

All these were crimes against property, some forced by a pitiful necessity. Elizabeth Beckford, the second oldest woman on the First Fleet, was seventy. Her crime, for which she got seven years’ transportation, was to have stolen twelve pounds of Gloucester cheese. At the Stalford Assizes, a laborer named Thomas Hawell went down for seven years for ‘feloniously stealing one live hen to the value of 2d, and one dead hen to the value of 2d’. Elizabeth Powley , twenty-two and unemployed, raided a kitchen in Norfolk, took a few shillings’ worth of bacon,flour and raisons, with ‘twenty-four ounces weight of Butter value 12d’, and was sentenced to hang, but a reprieve came and to Australia she went, never to eat butter again. Hunger drove a West Indian named Thomas Chaddick into a kitchen garden where he ‘did pluck up, spoil and destroy, against the form of the statute’ twelve cucumber plants; he, too, went to Australia, there to contemplate the exactness with which the god of property had measured out his black life in cucumbers.

There were, of course, less trivial crimes. Apprentices robbed their masters’stock. John Nicolls, a hairdresser’s assistent, drew seven years transportation for stealing goods worth 14 pounds 9s 6d, enough to start his own barbershop.

None of these acts were news when they happened. They were drops in a swollen torrent of eighteenth-century crime. The only exception was Thomas Gearing, who created a brief sensation in Oxford in 1786 by breaking into the chapel of Magdalen College and stealing some ecclesiastical plate. For this sacrilege he was condemned to death, reprieved and then transported for life.

The oldest female convict was Dorothy Handland, a dealer in rags and old clothes who was eighty-two years old in 1787. She had drawn seven years for perjury. The youngest boy was John Hudson, a nine-year-old chimney sweep. He had stolen some clothes and a pistol. He was sent to Australia for seven years. The youngest girl was Elizabeth Hayward, a clogmaker aged thirteen, who had stolen a linen gown and a bonnet worth 7 shillings.”

The Epic of Australia’s Founding, Robert Hughes,1986

15/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

“Thus, despite the talk about strategic advantage that was heard up to the dispatch of the First Fleet in 1787, the actual benefits of the new colony to England were only two: It was a sign of claim, a foothold on the new continent; and, in Evan Nepean’s words, it absorbed ‘a dreadful banditti’. For all the hopes, New South Wales was too far out on the geopolitical periphery of the late eightteenth century to do much else.

In the summer of 1786, Pitt’s Cabinet, having run out of alternatives, decided to found its penal colony at Botany Bay. Lord Sydney’s announcement to the Lords of the Treasury (drafted by Evan Nepean) held a note of urgency:’The greatest danger is to be apprehended’ of escape from the crowded hulks and jails, while ‘infectious distempers’ threatened their inmates. Thus ‘measures should immediately be pursued’  for getting the transportable convicts out of England. In round numbers, the first shipment should contain 600 of them (later 750), guarded by three companies of marines. Nepean estimated the cost of the equipment for founding the settlement in Australia at 29,300 pounds. Running it would cost the government 18,669 pounds the first year, 15,449pounds the second and under 7,000 pounds the third; after that, if all went to plan, it would be self-victualling. [tipies politici: akkuraat-klinkende optimistiese syfers. Soos aankondigings oor werkskepping in S.A.]

The proposal to colonize Botany Bay with convicts was formally drawn up (almost certainly by Nepean rather than Sydney) in an unsigned document titled ‘Heads of a Plan for effectually disposing of convicts’ and was presented to the cabinet in August 1786. It’s emphasis was clear. The proposed colony would serve as ‘a remedy for the evils likely to result from the late alarming and numerous increase of felons in this country, and more particularly in he metropolis’ [London]. The secondary benefits of the regions raw materials was presented at the end of the document: ‘It may also be proper to attend to the possibility of procuring … masts and ships’ timber for the fleet in India, as the distance between the two countries is not greater than between Great Britain and America.’ 

The cabinet gave its approval, and without further ado, the government chose a man to lead the expedition and govern the new colony. He was found on the navy’s semi-retired list: a man of independent but modest means, living as a gentleman farmer at Lyndhurst in the New Forest of Hampshire. His name was Captain Arthur Phillip.”

The Epic of Australia’s Founding

13/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

Volgens historici was die beplande nedersetting by Botany Bay in New Holland nie net as ‘n stortingsterrein vir Engeland se “criminal class” nie, maar ook om strategiese redes. Toe William Pitt ‘the Younger’ in 1783 eerste minister geword het was Engeland half bankrot weens sy oorlog met Frankryk. Die ekonomiese belang van die Ooste vir Brittanje het toegeneem en daar is gehoop dat dit die verlies van sy Atlantiese handel met vorige Amerikaanse kolonies kon vervang. Engeland se belang in die Ooste was nog d.m.v. ‘n privaat maatskappy, die korrupte East India Company, in die wandel na verwys as “John Company”. Met die aanvaarding van Pitt’s Indian Act (1784) is “John Company” gedeeltelik genasionaliseer. Indie was nou van nasionale belang, maar Engeland wou daardie belange uitbrei tot in China.

Holland was die sleutel tot strategiese mag in die Ooste. Die hawens en forte van die Hollandse Handels ‘Empire’ het gestrek van Kaapstad tot die suidwestelike Stille Oseaan. Die Hollandse monopolie van die ‘Spesery Eilande’ (nou Indonesie) was al vir langer as ‘n eeu gevestig, maar sy militere vermoe het reeds krake gewys. In 1780 het Engeland oorlog verklaar teen Holland en begin met ‘n reeks aanvalle teen Hollandse basisse in die Ooste. In Maart 1781 het ‘n swak beplande aanval op Kaapstad  misluk, wat daartoe gelei het  dat die Franse, onder Admiraal de Suffren, die Hollandse garnisoen aan die Kaap kom versterk het. ‘n Ander Britse vloot het twee kleiner Hollandse hawens met strategiese invloed oor die seeroetes na die Baai van Bengale verower: Negapatum aan die suidooskus van Indie en Trincomalee in Ceylon (nou Sri Lanka). Kort daarna het De Suffren weer Trincomalee herower.

Die les wat Pitt van die afgelee, onbeslissende oorlog geleer het, nadat vyandelikhede gestaak is, was dat die kombinasie van Hollandse basisse en Franse skepe ‘n gevaar vir Britse belange in die Ooste ingehou het. Holland se maritieme mag was nie meer ‘n faktor nie, maar daardeur het ‘n vakuum in die Vere Ooste ontstaan en Brittanje wou dit vul voordat Frankryk dit kon doen. Alhoewel Frankryk graag beheer oor Indie wou kry, was sy militere mag nie sterk genoeg nie. Na die vrede van 1783 het hulle egter ‘n reeks diplomatieke skuiwe gemaak om die Britse invloed in die Ooste te neutraliseer. In 1785 is ‘n verdrag gesluit met die Bei in Kairo t.o.v. handelsregte in Egipte, wat deur die Britte beskou is as ‘n skuif vir ‘n moontlike inval van Indie. Die Franse Oos-Indiese Kompanjie is gestig om met die Britse Oos-Indiese Kompanjie te kompeteer. Die Franse het ook die Hollandse Patriotiese Party bearbei en teen die einde van 1785 is ‘n verdedigingsooreenkoms tussen Frankryk en Holland onderteken. Vroeg die volgende jaar het die Patriotte beheer van die Hollandse Oos-Indiese Kompanjie oorgeneem en duisende troepe na die Kaap en Trincomalee gestuur.

Sir James Harris het in Maart 1786 aan Pitt gerapporteer dat Frankryk die Patriotte ingelig het dat ‘n skeuring met Engeland in Asie op hande is. “No time should be lost in augmenting British Naval and Land Force in that Quarter of the World”. Die bedreiging van so ‘n  ‘skeuring’ het tot die besetting van ‘Botany Bay’ gelei. In die18e eeu was die belangrikheid van dennebome en vlas vergelykbaar met olie en uraan vandag. Alle skeepsmaste en sparre was van dennehout, terwyl vlas die roumateriaal van skeepsseile was. Geeneen van die kommoditeite was in voldoende hoeveelhede in die Verre Ooste beskikbaar nie. Die hoofmas van ‘n 74-kanon oorlogskip was 3 voet (1m) wyd aan die basis en 108 voet (35 m) hoog. ‘n Enkele stam, reguit en sonder swakplekke was benodig. So ‘n oorlogskip het sowat 22 maste en dwarshoute gehad. Slegs dennebome het aan die vereistes voldoen. Geen sulke bome het in Brittanje of die Ooste gegroei nie, maar is ingevoer vanaf Riga aan die Baltiese kus van Rusland. Vlas vir seile is ook vanaf Rusland ingevoer, ter waarde van ‘n halfmiljoen Britse pond per jaar. Hierdie strategiese materiale is 1700 myl ver vervoer vanaf Riga na Portsmouth oor Skandinawiese waters. In tye van oorlog kan die toevoer afgesny word. Daarvandaan moes die materiaal nog 10,000 myl vervoer word voordat dit vir die Britse skepe in die Verre Ooste beskikbaar sou raak. In September 1784 het die Franse juis die reg van Swede verkry om ‘n vloot-depot op die eiland van Goteberg by die ingang van die Baltiese See op te rig!

Met die vooruitsig van ‘n oorlog in die Verre Ooste het Pitt se raadgewers hom herinner aan Norfolk Eiland, ‘n duisend myl oos van Botany Bay, wat kort tevore op Cook se tweede reis ontdek is. Cook het verskeie eilande op pad na Norfolk Eiland verbygevaar waar dennebome gegroei het, sommige groot genoeg vir skeepsmaste. Norfolk denne groei tot ‘n meter wyd en  sowat 60 meter hoog. Die kus van die eiland was ook digbegroei met vlas wat ideaal vir die maak van seile sou wees.

‘n Amerikaans-gebore amptenaar, James Mario Matra (1745-1806) het vertoe gerig dat vrye nedersettings in Nieu Suid Wallis gestig word om Amerikaanse Lojaliste (wat hul eiendom in Amerika verloor het) te huisves, sowel as Britse “peasants”. Hierin is hy ondersteun deur Joseph Banks.  Hierdie vertoe het egter op dowe ore geval.

The Fatal Shore: The epic of Australia’s Founding (R.Hughes,1986)

12/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

Hierdie boek is sedert 1994 in my versameling na ‘n besoek aan Uvongo, Natal.

Nadat Kaptein Cook die ooskus van Australie in 1770 ontdek en karteer het, was ‘New Holland’ die eerste keer volledig op die wereldkaart. Op Cook se 2de ontdekkingreis (1772) kon hy bewys dat daar nie ‘n ander Terra australis bestaan het nie, behalwe miskien in die met ys bedekte suidpoolgebied ( Antarktika). Aanvanklik was die Britse regering nie entoesiasties oor Australie nie en die volgende ekspedisie het eers 18 jaar later na ‘Botany Bay’teruggekeer.

Nadat die Amerikaanse kolonies hulle van  hul stamland losgemaak het, kon misdadigers nie meer soontoe gestuur word nie en het die Engelse tronke gou oorvol geraak. Voorlopig is misdadigers gehuisves in ou skepe (drywende wrakke) op die Teems-rivier. In 1779, die jaar wat Cook deur Hawaiiane in Karakakoa-baai vermoor is, het die Britse Laerhuis (‘House of Commons’) ‘n komitee aangestel om alternatiewe bestemmings vir die misdadigers te oorweeg. Joseph Banks, wat Cook se eerste ontdekkingsreis meegemaak het, is deur die komitee gevra om insette te lewer oor Australie.  Banks het  ‘Botany Bay’ in optimistiese terme beskryf en die komitee beindruk, maar ander getuies is ook aangehoor, o.a. oor Gibraltar en plekke aan die Weskus van Afrika.

Geen besluite is egter geneem voor 1785 nie, toe die drywende wrakke reeds oorvol was nie. Die komitee, met Lord Beauchamp as voorsitter, het in daardie jaar weer vergader om verskillende opsies op te weeg. Die eerste opsie was die eiland Lemane op die Gambia-rivier in Wes-Afrika, 400 myl van die riviermond af. Die goewerneur van die ‘Africa Company’, ‘n slawe-werwingsmaatskappy, het voorgestel dat die misdadigers op die eiland ge’dump’ word, met ‘n wagskip stroomaf om te verhinder dat hulle ontsnap. Die voorstel het nie byval gevind nie. Die komitee moes besluit op een van twee alternatiewe, Botany Bay of Voltas-baai (net suid van die Oranjeriviermond). Laasgenoemde het die stem gekry weens sy ligging langs ‘n bestaande handelsroete. In September 1785 is ‘n skip na Voltas gestuur om meer inligting in te win. Daar is egter gerapporteer dat die landstreek te droog en onvrugbaar was om ‘n kolonie te onderhou. Noodgedwonge moes toe op ‘Botany Bay’ teruggeval word.

Hit Parade: Hierdie week 47 jaar gelede

10/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

1. I could easily fall (in love with you) – Cliff Richard (2)

2. Downtown – Petula Clark (1)

3. All day and all of the night – Kinks (3)

4. Mr. Lonely – Bobby Vinton (5)

5. Yeah-yeah – Danny Fisher (8)

6. Heart – Gene Rockwell (6)

7. The bells ring – John Gary (nuut)

8. Roustabout – Elvis Presley (4)


Na twee weke heelbo staan ‘Downtown’ terug vir Cliff se volgende groot treffer.

John Gary was op die eerste van hierdie ‘hit parades’ reeks met ‘Once upon a time’. Frik het dit nog op sy ooreenstemmend blog gehad. ‘The bells ring’ is net so mooi.

Your love is like a golden bell

Ringing in my heart

And when I touch your hand I knew

Our love will never die

Because the bells ring ….

Hier laat my geheue my in die steek. Kan iemand uithelp? Hierdie week se liriek is van nog ‘n sanger wie se naam ek vergeet het. Is daar ‘n leser wat hom onthou? My gebrekkige Frans moet maar verskoon word.

Bonsoir Ma’moiselle

Get around the piano boys, and raise your glasses high

It’s time to bid the girls of Paris one last long goodbye


 Chorus

          Bonsoir ma’moiselle, bonsoir ma’moiselle

         It’s time for the parting, au revoir ma’moiselle

         We loved not too wisely, but oh we loved well

         Bonsoir, bonsoir, au revoir ma’moiselle

Here’s to the summer, and here’t to the Seine

And here’s to the seasons that won’t come again

Who knows where we’re going

But oh where we’ve been

Bonsoir, bonsoir, au revoir ma’moiselle

Chorus

Here’s to the steward in every cafe

And here’s to the girls on the Champ D’Ellysees (spreek uit ‘ellisay’)

We’ll never forget, though we’re sailing away

Bonsoir, bonsoir, au revoir ma’moiselle

      Bonsoir ma’moiselle, bonsoir ma’moiselle

      It’s time for the parting, au revoir ma’moiselle

      We loved not too wisely, but oh we loved well

      Bonsoir, bonsoir, au revoir ma’moiselle

      Bonsoir, bonsoir, au revoir ma’moiselle

Die oorsaak van die Ystyd

09/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

“Astronomical Theory does not provide the cause of the Ice-Age. The preceding discussion of the astronomical theory has made it clear that the fluctuations of solar radiation, caused by the perturbations of the Earth’s orbit, provide a satisfactory explanation for the alternating glacial and interglacial phases. They do not, however, explain the Ice-age as a whole.”

(The Pleistocene Period, Frederik E. Zeuner,1959,445pp).

Ignoreer asb. die fyn skrif in die diagram bo. Dis die “Drake Passage” wat belangrik is in hierdie bespreking van J.P. le Roux se artikel, wat ‘n verklaring vir die ontstaan van die Ystyd van die Pleistoseen voorstel. Terwyl Suid-Amerika en Antarktika verbind was kon die ekwatoriale seestrome die kus van Antarktika verwarm en ysvry hou. Die ontwikkeling van die deurgang het gelei tot die ontstaan van die poolstroom rondom die Antarktiese vasteland, wat laasgenoemde van die ekwatoriale seestrome geisoleer het. Toenemende afkoeling het vergletsering op die suidelike vasteland veroorsaak, reeds vanaf vroeg in die Tersier. Die toenemende ysbedekking oor Antarktika en later oor Suid-Amerika (weens die opheffing van die Andes-bergreeks) het op verskillende maniere ‘n uitwerking op globale klimaat, wat mettertyd gelei het tot die ontstaan van die Ystyd in die Noordelike Halfrond.

Die twee gedeeltes van die artikel van 40 bladsye bevat verwysings na meer as 300 “peer reviewed” artikels deur ander navorsers.

A review of Tertiary climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula

08/03/2012 in Sonder kategorie

J.P. le Roux, Sedimentary Geology, March 2012

Part 2:Continental conditions

ASTRACT

“Climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula during the Tertiary show a strong correlation with ocean warming and cooling events, which are in turn related to tectonic processes. During periods of accelerated sea-floor spreading and mid-ocean ridge activity, sea-levels rose so that parts of the continents were flooded and forests were destroyed. However, this was balanced by the large-scale release of CO2 during volcanic outgassing and carbonate precipitation on the continental shelves, which caused rising air temperatures and the poleward expansion of (sub)tropical and temperate forests. Cooling episodes generally caused an increase in the north-south thermal gradient because of an equatorward shift in climate belts, so that the Westerly Winds intensified and brought higher rainfall to the lower latitudes. [Presies wat nou gebeur] An increase in wind-blown dust caused temperatures to drop further by reflecting sunlight back into space.

The rising Andes Range had a marked influence on climate patterns. Up to the middle Miocene it was still low enough to allow summer rainfall to reach central and north-central Chile, but about 14 Ma it rose rapidly and effectively blocked the spill-over of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Amazon Basin. At this time, the cold Humboldt Current was also established, which together with the Andes helped to create the “Arid Diagonal” of southern South America stretching from the Atacama Desert to the dry steppes of Patagonia. This caused the withdrawal of subtropical forests to south-central Chile and the expansion of sclerophytic vegetation to central Chile. However, at the same time it intercepted more rain from the northeast, causing the effect of the South American monsoon to intensify in northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia, where forest communities presently occur.

In Patagonia, glaciation started as early as 10.5 Ma, but by 7 Ma had become a prominent feature of the landscape and continued apparently uninterrupted into the Pleistocene. The Antarctic Peninsula saw its first mountain glaciation between 45 and 41 Ma, with major ice-sheet expansion commencing at about 34 Ma. Isolated stands of Nothofagus forests were still present in low-lying areas, suggesting that the glaciers were initially wet-based, but dry-based glaciers were established at around 8 Ma. Although temperatures rose briefly during the Messinian-Pliocene transition, causing sub-Antarctic flora to retreat to higher elevations of the Transatarctic Mountains, the present cold polar conditions were finally established by about 3 Ma.”

Die warm toestande voor die vergletsering van Antarktika was nie katastrofies vir plant- en dierelewe nie.

1. Introduction

“Climatic changes, whether global or caused by regional events such as tectonic uplift, have a profound influence on all forms of life. Organisms are either forced to adapt to the changing environment, migrate to a more favorable habitat, or become extinct. All these alternative responses are recorded in the stratigraphic and sedimentary records, which can thus be used to reconstruct climate variations through time in any particular region.  Shifting trends in the distribution and nature of flora and fauna constitute an important tool to track global events such as continental drift, the evolution of mountain ranges, sea-level oscillations, or changing ocean circulation patterns.

This paper focuses on continental conditions in the southern part of South America (SSA) and the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), with the aim to investigate the causes of climate changes in these subcontinents during the Tertiary. ….

a) Deep valley (locally known as a “quebrada”) crossing the Atacama Desert from east to west; b) typical shrub-land and cactus vegetation in north-central Chile; c) sub-tropical woodland in central Chile with jubaea chilensis (Chilean wine palm) in foreground; d) mixed deciduous forest of Nothofagus and Araucariaceae in south-central Chile.